Apple Improves Endurance In Exercise Performance

APE also decreased the concentration of serum lactate and lactate dehydrogenase, inorganic phosphate, and creatinine, the indicators of accumulated fatigue and exercise-induced stress. These results suggest that APE may be useful as an ergogenic functional food or dietary supplement.

Apple Improves Endurance In Exercise Performance

Apple Pomace Extract Improves Endurance in Exercise Performance by Increasing Strength and Weight of Skeletal Muscle

Ursolic acid is a lipophilic pentacyclic triterpenoid found in many fruits and herbs and is used in several herbal folk medicines for diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the effects of apple pomace extract (APE; ursolic acid content, 183 mg/g) on skeletal muscle atrophy. To examine APE therapeutic potential in muscle atrophy, we investigated APE effects on the expression of biomarkers associated with muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. We found that APE inhibited atrophy, while inducing hypertrophy in C2C12 myotubes by decreasing the expression of atrophy-related genes and increasing the expression of hypertrophy-associated genes. The in vivo experiments using mice fed a diet with or without APE showed that APE intake increased skeletal muscle mass, as well as grip strength and exercise capacity. In addition, APE significantly improved endurance in the mice, as evidenced by increased exhaustive running time and muscle weight, and reduced the expression of the genes involved in the development of muscle atrophy. APE also decreased the concentration of serum lactate and lactate dehydrogenase, inorganic phosphate, and creatinine, the indicators of accumulated fatigue and exercise-induced stress. These results suggest that APE may be useful as an ergogenic functional food or dietary supplement.

Ji-Woong Jeong 1, Jae-Jung Shim 1 2, Il-Dong Choi 1, Sung-Hwan Kim 1, Jehyeon Ra 1, Hyung Keun Ku 1, Dong Eun Lee 1, Tae-Youl Kim 1, Woonhee Jeung 1, Jung-Hee Lee 1, Ki Won Lee 2, Chul-Sung Huh 3, Jae-Hun Sim 1, Young-Tae Ahn 1  J Med Food. 2015 Dec;18(12):1380-6. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2014.3401. Epub 2015 Sep 2.