Nimbolide protects against acute respiratory distress syndrome

Collectively, these results indicate that TNF-α-regulated NF-κB and HDAC-3 crosstalk was ameliorated by nimbolide with promising anti-nitrosative, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties in LPS-induced ARDS.

Nimbolide protects against acute respiratory distress syndrome

Nimbolide protects against endotoxin-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome by inhibiting TNF-α mediated NF-κB and HDAC-3 nuclear translocation

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by an excessive acute inflammatory response in lung parenchyma, which ultimately leads to refractory hypoxemia. One of the earliest abnormalities seen in lung injury is the elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, among them, the soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) has a key role, which exerts cytotoxicity in epithelial and endothelial cells thus exacerbates edema. The bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used both in vitro (RAW 264.7, THP-1, MLE-12, A549, and BEAS-2B) and in vivo (C57BL/6 mice), as it activates a plethora of overlapping inflammatory signaling pathways involved in ARDS. Nimbolide is a chemical constituent of Azadirachta indica, which contains multiple biological properties, while its role in ARDS is elusive. Herein, we have investigated the protective effects of nimbolide in abrogating the complications associated with ARDS. We showed that nimbolide markedly suppressed the nitrosative-oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines expression by suppressing iNOS, myeloperoxidase, and nitrotyrosine expression. Moreover, nimbolide mitigated the migration of neutrophils and mast cells whilst normalizing the LPS-induced hypothermia. Also, nimbolide modulated the expression of epigenetic regulators with multiple HDAC inhibitory activity by suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and HDAC-3. We extended our studies using molecular docking studies, which demonstrated a strong interaction between nimbolide and TNF-α. Additionally, we showed that treatment with nimbolide increased GSH, Nrf-2, SOD-1, and HO-1 protein expression; concomitantly abrogated the LPS-triggered TNF-α, p38 MAPK, mTOR, and GSK-3β protein expression. Collectively, these results indicate that TNF-α-regulated NF-κB and HDAC-3 crosstalk was ameliorated by nimbolide with promising anti-nitrosative, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties in LPS-induced ARDS.

Venkatesh Pooladanda 1, Sowjanya Thatikonda 1, Swarna Bale 1, Bijay Pattnaik 2, Dilep Kumar Sigalapalli 3, Nagendra Babu Bathini 3, Shashi Bala Singh 1, Chandraiah Godugu 4  Cell Death Dis. 2019 Jan 28;10(2):81.