2 The Journey From the Womb to the Tomb
“And the LORD God formed a man's body from the dust of the ground and breathed into it the breath of life. And the man became a living person” (Gen 2:7). All of the billions of people, except a few who ever walked this earth, started life as a single set of DNA in an egg fertilized by a sperm. The DNA in each cell does not weigh more than one six-millionth of one-millionth of a gram.
“And the LORD God formed a man's body from the dust of the ground and breathed into it the breath of life. And the man became a living person” (Gen 2:7). All of the billions of people, except a few who ever walked this earth, started life as a single set of DNA in an egg fertilized by a sperm. The DNA in each cell does not weigh more than one six-millionth of one-millionth of a gram. It is difficult to comprehend that this little speck of DNA (kept intact by sufficient cellular NAD, also known as coenzyme 1) was capable of starting a process, which led to our fingernails and toenails, our eyebrows and eyelashes and our range of functioning organs, including the hundred billion cells in the brain.729 “Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), an energy "currency" of the cell, all cellular life requires it and there is a concomitant pantheon of proteins that interact with it”.762
2.1 OUR BODY: THE HOST OF LIFE
Irrespective of whether one is old or young, male or female, black or white, holy or sinful, prostitute or nun, pope or punk, all of us share this one common denominator of a physical body, which is the host of human life. During our life, our bodies constitute us. We need a body to be able to complete this earthly part of our life. Even Jesus needed a body, which he received in part from Mary to prove the importance of being physical. “And so the Word became flesh and took a place among us for a time; and we saw his glory - such glory as is given to an only son by his Father - saw it to be true and full of grace” (John 1:14). None of our achievements, ideas, failures and emotions would be possible without our bodies. We travel through life, while we actually remain completely ignorant about how our bodies function, thereby missing out on an entire dimension of our existence.
One of the most horrible evidence of this ignorance of the body and its functions is the high incidence of many unwanted and teenage pregnancies. During 1999 in the USA alone, 8 720 legal abortions were carried out on 14 year old girls; 88 420 in the age group 15 to 17; 152 520 in the age group 18 to 19 and 422 550 in women aged 20 to 24 years old.724 A total of 672 210 lives were legally ended in the USA during 1999 by no choice of their own. The abortion figure for the world during 1999 is 26 million legal abortions and 20 million illegal abortions. This means that 126 027 new lives were aborted every day during 1999.728
Every healthy baby that is fortunate enough to see the light of day represents three kilograms of potential. Its little body is a collection of various chemicals, namely approximately 10 per cent protein, 10 per cent fat, 1 per cent sugar and 75 per cent water. Their composition is orchestrated by the 100 000 genes, which the baby inherited by means of the 23 pairs of chromosomes from its parents.729 In order to build our bodies, approximately 74 of the 114 chemical elements are grouped into certain genetically-related chemical compounds. Chemical elements are the basic building blocks, like oxygen, hydrogen, phosphate, carbon, nitrogen, gold, iron, zinc and iodine, amongst others. We obtain these chemical elements from the food, air and water that we take in. Experts estimate that an adult's body is composed of approximately R 23.00's worth of chemical elements, mostly a few buckets of water. The final product, the living body, is however priceless. These genetic instructions determined and organize our entire physical life. And what a life it will be! For the 10% of babies who are born NAD deficient, the major cause of energy-metabolic-deficiency (EMD), this life can be one long nightmare. Some EMD babies will not even make it to the age of two years.
Each healthy young one, who shows up in the developing world, can expect to live for approximately 72 years if it is a boy and 78 years if it is a girl. This little bundle, which is helpless and dependant at this stage and if we assume it is a girl, her body will transform and convert itself many times during these three-quarters of a century and the resultant will be dependent on the metabolic energy available. From when she is a baby and changes into a young child, an adult and ultimately into the grey years and death, she will needs lots of metabolic energy to beat a continuous series of challenges and have to adapt to them. Her body will need metabolic energy and nutrients to grow, until it contains ten-thousand billion cells, which will almost all undergo a constant cycle of death and renewal.729 For each of these growing and renewal processes, from each individual cell to the whole body, constantly needs sufficient ATP generated by NAD from food to maintain quality of life. Babies with EMD will have problems with metabolic energy production due to their genetic predisposition and will not live a healthy life. During her life she will:
∙ Talk for up to ten years.
∙ Breathed 41 million times and inhaled about 173 million litres of air.
∙ Walk 22 000 kilometres.
∙ Drive for one year in a car.
∙ Sleep for 22 years.
∙ Be paid for nine years of work after at least changing her career three times.
∙ Talk for two-and-a-half years on the telephone.
∙ Fall in love twice, have sex more than 3 000 times and kiss for two weeks.
∙ Grow 28m fingernails, 950km of hair and 2m of hair in her nose.
∙ Discard 19 kg of dead skin.
∙ Spend five years eating and drinking.
∙ Renew her skeleton 11 times.
∙ Renew the inner lining of her stomach 32 448 times.
∙ To successfully complete and enjoy all of the above, her body will have to manufacture about
1140 tons of ATP using 950 tons of NAD to reach the age of 78 years.
Thanks to modern science, we are today able to look inside ourselves on cellular level, in a way in which no previous generation could do it. For instance, the importance of the mitochondria and its role in EMD in families are more highlighted in research since the 70's. Genetic and chronic EMD is transferred from the mother to her children and are already present at the time of conception. The manifestation of EMD will vary from each of her children, for example the eldest can suffer from asthma (energy block = 47) since age two; the second child, a brilliant doctor only developed Alzheimer’s disease (energy block = 71) in his sixties and the third and last daughter’s EMD showed up at age 30 because she could not have children of her own due to fertility problems (energy block = 62). All of this could be assessed just after birth by two simple blood tests (the biochemical indicators of EMD): the lactate and pyruvate tests and the lactate/pyruvate ratio. EMD can be successfully addressed by NAD therapy and the nutriceutical supplements involved. EMD can also be ignored, but this does not change anything to the destruction, to which it leads. Genuine caring couples planning their new families will already attend to their planned child’s metabolic energy needs even from before conception. Even before they plan the kid’s room they will ensure a proper sperm, ovum and womb for this precious new life.
The story of the human body is spelled out over millions of years and this story is also retold and improved on by each of us during our life. We live our bodies, but nevertheless we are not as intimately acquainted with it as we could be. This is, for all living creatures, in a way the greatest story, which has ever been told. It starts with those two cells - the largest one in the human body and one of the smallest, namely an ovum and a spermatozoon, an egg and a sperm cell. The unborn child is a human being, just as you and I are, from the moment of, or just following the moment of, conception when the two cells unite. Regarding the constituting ovum and the sperm the resultant baby will has no choice, but to accept its genetic code as the blueprint for his life.729 So much then for choosing again.
2.2 CONCEPTION: THE START OF THE JOURNEY
“So God created people in his own image; God patterned them after himself; male and female he created them. God blessed them and told them, "Multiply and fill the earth and subdue it. Be masters over the fish and birds and all the animals" (Gen 1:27-28). This decree to multiply is accompanied with a huge responsibility because it results in new life who on average will lives for 75 years and will be dependent on his parents for at least the first 15 years. “But if any do not take care of their relatives, especially the members of their own family, they have denied the faith and are worse than an unbeliever”. (1 Timothy 5:8)
“Then Adam named his wife Eve, because she would be the mother of all people everywhere” (Gen 3:20). For 38 weeks two individuals are linked to each other, while the one is developing inside the other one. The amount of metabolic energy (ATP, mainly generated from food particles and NAD in the mitochondria of each cell) available to both the developing child and mother will too a great extent determine the quality of life for each. The mother is nevertheless, almost like the father, actually merely a bystander, irrespective of how close the physical linkage between her and her unborn baby is. The child, to whom she gives life, is not part of her, the way that a blossom is part of a plant's bole. It is a separate human being, a stranger irrespective of how close the physical link is between her and her unborn baby. The developing child is genetically as different from her as any of his brothers and sisters are different from each other.729
THE OVUM: The ovum, the egg, stores all the necessary material to initiate the growth of the embryo. It contains ribosomes, about 50,000 species of mRNA, tRNA, and morphogenetic factors, yolk proteins and the cell nucleus. The ovum (oocyte) is viable for only 48 hrs following ovulation, during which it moves along the ovarian tube where it may be fertilized. During oocyte maturation, lactate and pyruvate are the sources of energy.721 The egg had been formed before the woman's birth and waits twenty, thirty, forty or more years before it is prepared and released for fertilization. The ovum contains mitochondria each with its own set of DNA. This number of mitochondria are fixed per ovum and are transfered to the embryo. “Levels of lactate, pyruvate, oxy- and carbohaemoglobin were shown to change regularly during women's menstrual cycle reflecting changes in metabolism in respect to forming and destroying of the ovum”.690
THE SPERM: “Capacitation is a complex series of molecular events that occurs in sperm after epididymal maturation and confers on sperm the ability to fertilize an egg. In most cases, capacitation media contain energy substrates, such as pyruvate, lactate and glucose, a cholesterol acceptor (usually serum albumin), NaHCO(3), Ca(2+), low K(+), and physiological Na(+) concentrations”.689 Out of perhaps 200-400 million sperm cells which are poured out, there are only one-hundred survivors left in the race by the time when they will have reached the egg. It after all requires thousands of rowing movements with the tadpole tail, to move a sperm one centimetre forward. “Low osmolarity, low lactate concentrations or the protein content may be responsible for the loss of sperm motility”.720
As soon as the first sperm and the egg cell meet each other, the outer membrane of the two merge and chemical changes in the egg quickly prevent more sperms from entering it. Only the sperm's head penetrates the egg cell and the tail and its mitochondria drops off the sperm’s head and is lost. When the sperm cell is inside the egg, it releases a chemical signal which activates the egg. The sperm's head is then drawn towards the core of the egg and their genetic material merges. This is the moment of conception, when the genetic composition of a new individual is created. The DNA from the father's sperm combines with DNA from the mother's ova. If the fertilization (uniting of the two cells) does not take place, both cells will die. The cells are from human beings, but are not human beings. The embryo is already genetically male or female, and a completely unique individual. Will he have his father's blue eyes and his mother's wide feet? The blueprint for all of these inherited traits is established at this time. It is a unique human being, for none like it ever existed before, and none quite like it will ever exist again. It is a real person, just as real as you and I. Genetically, it is totally different from the body of the father or the mother. Organically, it is independent, programmed from within, growing in an orderly manner, moving toward further maturity.729
“It was known that immediately after an egg and sperm fuse, a wave of calcium ions sweeps through the cell, triggering fertilisation. But scientists have spent the last decade trying to discover what triggered this calcium release. Tony Lai, of the University of Wales College of Medicine, tackled the problem by taking a candidate enzyme, PLC-zeta, and injecting it into unfertilised eggs. He immediately saw the wave of calcium sweep through the cell. The egg cell then began to divide and grow as if it had been fertilised. "It's only when you get to the blastocyst stage that the embryo stops growing," says Lai "It's at this stage that you require the male genes to kick in. You need the full genetic complement after this."776
The mother is completely unaware of all of these things which occur inside of her, but as soon as this have taken place she is creating her child. Or one should rather say, that another human being is creating himself, while he is using the mother like a parasite. A human being's development can in no way be compared to, for example, the assembling of a car. Although needing the protective environment of his mother's body, this living being is completely independent in its functions from the very beginning of his or her life, and at only ten days of age takes over complete physiologic control of certain functions within the mother's body. One example of this is that the unborn child stops his or her mother's menstrual periods.729
All of us were once an infant - that kept growing into an adult. The only difference is nutrition and time. Nothing else has been added. You are a continuum person. You began when the two cells united within your mother or in a test tube. Since then you grew until you reached adulthood. You are now more developed than when you were in your mother, but you were all there, back then.
The fertilized ovum begins growing by dividing into two cells. One of these cells will form the embryo's body and internal organs. The other cell will form the external system that the embryo will need to survive in the womb; the amniotic sac and chorion (the blood vessels that will later make up the placenta). First the fertilized egg divides approximately every 12 hours. It divides first into 2 cells, then 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and so on. As a result there is soon a huge quantity, more than a million cells, after only twenty divisions. The dividing cells form three layers, much like a cake with a filling in the centre. The outer layer will in time form the skin, as well as nails, hair, lenses of the eye, salivary glands and all nervous tissue, including the brain. The central layer will create muscles, bones, cartilage, veins and kidneys. The inner layer will produce the gullet, stomach and intestines, as well as the liver, pancreas, bladder and the lining of each lung. The heart also starts as a group of cells underneath the brain. How this instruction is given exclusively to this group of cells is a mystery. It indeed remains a secret, the same way that a large part of the development of the embryo still remains a mystery.729 From this it is more than clear that irrespective who you are, you simply started out as two cells merging as one and multiplying into the billons of cells who you are today. Ignore the maintenance of your cells and you will certainly pay a dear price on cellular level.
“Since mitochondria were established to carry their own functional genome, a new mechanism of genetic nonmendelian inheritance, maternal inheritance, was discovered. All the mitochondria in the newly formed zygote are derived from the ovum (ie, maternally derived). Mitochondrial DNA is more vulnerable to mutations in the oxidizing environment of mitochondria; its repair mechanisms are poor compared to nuclear DNA. Mutations in mitochondria accumulate in cells until a threshold is reached. Eventually, the proportion of mutant mitochondria exceeds wild type, resulting in the manifestation of impaired cell function.”722 Since the 70s, more than a hundred diseases have been identified as having a mitochondrial basis. .. The vast majority (90%) of the energy needs of the human body are met by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation takes place entirely in mitochondria (tiny cellular organelles that closely resemble bacteria in both size and structure)."82 "Pyridine nucleotides (NAD, NADH, NADP etc.) are mostly stored within mitochondria where they are involved in different functions ranging from energy metabolism to cellular signalling".687
“Mitochondria play a central role in both programmed cell death (apoptosis) and the morphological changes indicative of cell death caused by enzymatic degradation(necrosis), through the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore(MPTP). Subsequent mitochondrial permeability transition pore closure allows ATP levels to be maintained, ensuring that cell death remains apoptotic rather than necrotic. The cells of most tissues have a finite lifetime with a few cells dying at any one time and being replaced by new cells. Such cell death is known as programmed cell death(apoptosis) and is strictly controlled. A particularly dramatic example of apoptosis is seen in tissue remodeling during embryo development. Apoptosis also occurs following a moderate insult, insufficient to kill the cell outright but enough to cause significant cell damage. (eg. A short period of hypoxia or exposure to low doses of a chemical toxin). In contrast, if the initial damage to a cell is too severe, the precisely regulated process of apoptosis is not possible and cell death occurs by necrosis .The cell and its organelles swell and the plasma membrane ruptures with the loss of intracellular contents into the surrounding medium. This attracts neutrophils which cause an inflammatory response and secondary damage to the tissue. In many cancers it is an impairment of apoptosis that leads to unrestrained cell proliferation and an insensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. Clinically it would be desirable to inhibit cell death in the former situations and stimulate it in the latter. In recent years it has become apparent that mitochondria play a critical role in the mechanism of both apoptotic and necrotic cell death, in addition to their widely recognized function in the provision of ATP to sustain function”.798
FIRST WEEK: Between 6 to 9 days the embryo implants in his or her mother's uterus. “Implantation of the fertilized ovum into the endometrium is the most difficult process of early pregnancy. Even among perfectly fertile couples, as many as one third of all pregnancies are lost due to deficient implantation. Implantation and formation of placenta is the major determinant of fetal growth and development”.721, 734 “During implantation, extravillous trophoblasts breech uterine vessels that are embedded in a decidual cell matrix. Through this invasive process the embryo gains requisite access to the maternal blood supply, while risking exposure to high circulating glucocorticoid levels. Thus, the expression of 11 beta-HSD (whose catalytic activity is NADP(+)-dependent, and NAD(+)-dependent) by the decidual cell layer may be essential in regulating cortisol exposure of the developing embryo prior to placentation”.741
2.3 LIFE IN THE WOMB: THE FIRST LEG OF THE JOURNEY
Life in the womb is generally depicted as being a time of peacefulness and serenity, but the reality is a little different. “The body of the mother responds to pregnancy by a weight gain (12 kg in the average). This increase appears in the second and third trimester of the pregnancy. This increase involves the growth of the uterus from 50 g to 1000 g and the growth of the fetus and fetal membranes. The breasts grow by 1 kg. About 1.5 kg of extra body fat and increased volume of the extracellular fluid and blood contribute as well. The volume of blood increases by about 30%. The basal metabolic rate increases by about 15%. The cardiac output increases by about 30 - 40% above normal. Placental circulation involves about 625 ml of blood per minute.719 All of this needs lots of metabolic energy for both her and her child.
"Prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha regulate a number of physiological functions in reproductive tissues, and concentrations of these bioactive modulators increase during pregnancy. Corresponding to the increase in circulating levels of prostaglandins during pregnancy is an increase in enzymes that metabolize these agents. Three prostaglandin-metabolizing enzymes induced during pregnancy are NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH), NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase, and cytochrome P450-dependent prostaglandin omega- or 20-hydroxylase."650
TWO WEEKS: The embryo's heart is beating. Throughout his or her development, the embryo's body is fully functional, though the organs are still developing and incomplete. The embryo has a separate brain divided in three segments; the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain and spine. The placenta is forming. Limb buds, the beginnings of arms and legs, are forming.734 “NAD is a very specific component, an essential component of your body. If you do not have it, none of your systems functions, and this includes your brain. If you don't have NAD, you die; it's as simple as that.”65 “NAD-dependent methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase (NMDMC) catalyzes the interconversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate in mitochondria of mammalian cells, but its metabolic role is not yet clear. Its expression in embryonic tissues but not in most adult tissues as well as its stringent transcriptional regulation led us to postulate that it may play a role in embryonic development. To investigate the metabolic role of NMDMC, we used a knockout approach to delete the nmdmc gene in mice. Heterozygous mice appear healthy, but homozygous NMDMC knockout mice die in utero”.766
FOUR WEEKS: Circulation to and from the placenta begins. The placenta is a very special, amazing organ that connects the mother’s circulatory system with the embryo's. The placenta filters oxygen out of the mother’s blood into the baby's. It also gathers nutrition for the embryo. And lastly, the placenta sifts waste out of the embryo's blood. Soon the embryo's own kidneys will begin to function, and share this work with the placenta. The embryo has hands with ridges that will grow into fingers, and two-segmented arms. The embryo has feet, thighs, and calves. Internal organs are growing. The tongue, esophagus and stomach are well developed, as are the kidneys. The embryo's liver, gall bladder, and pancreas have been developing for several days. Lungs begin to develop. The thyroid and other glands are forming. The embryo's face and sensory organs are forming. He or she has eyes, including a retina that already has colour, as well as ears, a nose, and mouth. Reproductive organs are beginning to form.734, 735
FIVE WEEKS: The brain divides into more specialized segments. The telencephalon is the primitive cerebrum, the 'thinking' part of the brain and is responsible for sensory perception, memory, learning, and conscious thought. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and the hypothalamus, the 'feeling' part of the brain serving as a relay station between the senses and the brain. The hypothalamus produces basic drives and emotions such as hunger, thirst, pleasure, and fear. The cerebellum, medulla, and pons are responsible for unconscious physical processes like blood circulation or breathing, as well as reflexes, muscle coordination and movement. The embryo has a palate, completely with tiny tooth buds. His or her face is nearly finished forming and looks reasonably human, though lacking the muscles needed for facial expressions like smiling or frowning. The embryo begins to move.734
SIX WEEKS: The embryo looks like a baby in miniature, though his or her head is still very large compared to the rest of the body, because the brain is growing so quickly. “L-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (EC 188.8.131.52) from mammalian fetal and adult brain differ considerably with respect to their stability towards different temperatures between 25-65 degrees C. This property has been found to be associated with the presence of the synthase co-factor, NAD, bound to the enzyme protein. The lower thermal stability of the fetal enzyme increases in presence of added NAD (0.8 mM) whereas the higher thermal stability of the adult brain enzyme declines when NAD is specifically removed from the enzyme”.795 The embryo has distinct fingers. All the embryo's organs and organ systems have been developed, though they are still immature and need time to finish growing. Several organ systems, including the circulatory system (heart) and nervous system (brain) are already functioning. The embryo has distinct toes.734, 736
EIGHT WEEKS: The unborn baby is now called a 'fetus', because he or she has finished with the process of creating and only growing and developing of his whole body is left. Eyelids begin to form.734, 736 “As long as fetal oxygen reserves are not depleted, fetal metabolic functions will continue aerobically, even though fetal hypoxemia is present. As O2 reserves are exhausted in some tissues, fetal hypoxemia will be associated with tissue hypoxia, the net result of which will be anaerobic metabolism, lactic acidosis, and tissue death. Whether a fetus is adequately oxygenated or not is a function of the quantity of oxygen reserve available. A fetus with a substantial oxygen reserve can compensate fully for most interferences in its oxygen supply and can maintain oxidative metabolism under a variety of conditions. In contrast, a fetus with minimal oxygen reserves will not tolerate even the mildest degree of O2 deficiency without developing tissue hypoxia or even death in utero.”724
9 TO 10 WEEKS: The fetus touches his or her own face and sucks his or her thumb, and makes breathing and swallowing motions. The sense of smell begins to develop. The fetus urinates and experiences hiccups. He or she is moving almost constantly, and can step, kick, somersault, stretch, and move his or her arms. At the end of the ninth week, the critical developmental phase will have passed. The rest of the pregnancy is characterized by a rapid increase in size and further growth and differentiation between organs and tissues.735, 736
11 TO 13 WEEKS: At about twelve weeks it will already have turned into a little acrobat, who rolls from the back to the front, while it tumbles through the fluid and waves with its little arms and legs as if it wants to explore its environment. Even the facial muscles are exercised with little frowns and movements of the lips. The fetus's bone marrow begins to produce white blood cells. The fetus's external reproductive organs are visibly male or female. The inner parts of the ear are formed, and the fetus may be able to hear. The bones become hard, like in adults bones, whereas they had previously been soft. “We propose a role of extracellular NAD(+) in bone homeostatic control”.771 The sense of taste develops.734, 736
14 WEEKS: Fetuses display individual personality. The fetus can experience pleasure and happiness or displeasure and fear. Fetuses at this age are also startled, and their heart rates increased, by loud unpleasant noises. The mother, may first feel her baby kicking. He or she is finally strong.736
15 TO 16 WEEKS: The fetus's nerves are being coated with a fatty substance called myelin. Myelin makes faster nerve transmissions possible and insulates the nerves so that impulses can be sent over longer distances. The fetus has fingerprints.
19 WEEKS: This is the youngest that any baby has been born and survived. Babies born this young may have problems with infections, since their immune systems are still immature, and may have trouble breathing. In mothers “the second half of the normal pregnancy was characterized by an increase in activity of hexokinase, in content of 2,3-DPG, ADP, by a distinct decrease in ATP, NAD and the ratio ATP/ADP”.739
24 WEEKS: This is the age at which the laws in most considers a baby "viable", or able to survive outside the womb.
30 WEEKS: “At thirty weeks of gestation, there are 6 million ova in the ovary of the female fetus; at birth, there are one million of them; 300,000 to 400,000 are present at the onset of puberty, but only 400 follicles develop sufficiently to expel the ovum. After menopause, there are no follicles present.”721
38 WEEKS: This is the age at which a baby should, ideally, be born. At 38 weeks the baby's lungs are fully functional and his or her immune system is ready for the outside world.
Its phenomenal rise over a period of nine months, from a bunch of little cells to a well-developed baby, is over. There is more growth in the first part of life than in the last part of it. The human body has completed 90% of his or her growth at the time of birth. only 10% occurs between birth and adulthood. None after that. The fetal brain gives the birth signal. Also, it is believed that the fetal brain activates the synthesis of estrogens, which increase uterine contractility.721 It is ready to commence on the first significant and dangerous journey, which it will ever undertake. The second journey will only be dangerous for some of us, although the departure is caused by death.
2.4 BIRTH: CROSSING THE FIRST BRIDGE
All of us have already undertaken it, fortunately only once. It was the time, when you decided that the time had arrived to exchange the snug watery world of your mother's womb for the greater world outside of it. You had to get out of there, but your greatest obstacle was the size of your head. The tension was enormous and overwhelming. Eventually everything was over and you slipped out. You gasped for breath. Your lungs expanded. Suddenly they were filled with air. You screamed, probably. Someone cut your umbilical cord, which had been your life line. The noise was terrible.729
You had just completed the most significant journey of your life. You were born and were merely one of the nine human beings born every second of the day. A baby's first breath requires a huge amount of strength, to overcome the surface tension, which had kept the lungs closed when they had been filled with fluid. The lungs contain chemicals, to relieve the surface tension and to prevent the lungs from collapsing, when the first breath is exhaled. These chemicals are produced deep into the pregnancy and this creates problems for babies, who are born prematurely. Undeveloped lungs are often the critical factor, which limits very premature babies' chance of survival.729
“Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) has been also linked to exposure to ambient carbon monoxide... Fetal hypoxia caused by exposure to carbon monoxide could be a factor contributing to SIDS deaths.” 769 “Blood glucose, pyruvate and lactate were examined during hospitalization of 13 cases of acute carbon monoxide poisoning developing from short (less than or equal to 1.5 h) or long (10-14 h) exposure. CO intoxication resulted in increased blood levels of all carbohydrate metabolites studied. Increased levels of pyruvate and lactate were much more pronounced and lasted for a longer time following long, compared with short, CO exposure despite similar blood COHb level (about 40% at the beginning of hospitalization). The results showed difference in biochemical effect of short and long single exposure to CO that could not be detected by the measurement of COHb”.296 “Infant patients with "cerebral lactic acidosis" show neurological symptoms, elevated levels of lactate in CSF, little or no systemic acidosis and levels of lactate in blood so slightly elevated that they would be overlooked. Lactate elevation confined to CSF and brain has been described in biotinidase deficiency and in some mitochondriopathies.”727
“There is a need for metabolic screening facilities in developing countries. A battery of four simple tests namely arterial blood gases, blood ammonia, urinary ketones and blood lactate in tertiary health care centers is advocated”.727 “The purpose of the study was differential diagnosis of lactic acidosis in 44 children aged from 2 weeks to 4 years. In all of them the lactate level in repeated determinations exceeded 27 mg/100 ml. From the point of view of clinical manifestations the children were divided into three groups: 26 with hepatomegaly and hypoglycaemia (I), 6 with ataxia and retardation of somatic development (II), 12 with mental retardation and muscular hypotonia (III).714 “We have therefore determined fetal and maternal lactate concentrations and acid-base status under various conditions in 589 women at the end of gestation and during labor. The results show that metabolic acidosis develops in all fetuses because of increased production of lactic acidosis is primarily of fetal origin.”721 “Umbilical cord blood levels of lactate, base deficit, and pH were measured in 452 liveborn infants. In vigorous newborns, the mean umbilical arterial and venous concentrations of lactate were lowest with elective cesarean section, higher with cesarean section performed during labor, and highest with vaginal delivery. This suggests a rise in the fetal lactate level in response to labor. Depressed newborns had higher umbilical lactate levels than vigorous newborns irrespective of the method of delivery”723 Global surveys conservatively estimate the occurrence of inherited metabolic disorders in the range of three to four per thousand live born infants. Macrocephaly and microcephaly are common. Approximately 5% of children are either macro- or microcephalic.
Another danger, which the newly born must beat, is control of temperature. Foetuses in the womb do not have such concerns, because they can enjoy their mothers' warmth. After birth babies are however seldom capable to even do something simple, like shivering, which is important for adults to produce warmth. There are however brown deposits of fat around the baby's neck, shoulders, breastbone and spine. When he gets cold, his little body starts to burn the fat in an unique metabolic process, which releases a lot of heat and metabolic energy.729
Then there is the baby's appetite. It is enormous in proportion to its body weight. During the earliest days it can eat 3 per cent of its weight, but it increases rapidly to more than 10 per cent. Around the tenth day, the baby will already, with a lot a slurping and sucking, have consumed the same amount of milk as its body weight. Around this time it will gain approximately twenty grams in weight every day, or about one gram for every twenty grams which it consumes. If an adult consumed similar percentage of his body weight, he would have to process seven or more kilograms per day.729 Your baby eats so much because he needs lots of metabolic energy to sleep and grow. “You no sooner fall into a deep sleep when you're awakened by the only member of your family who seems to be getting enough rest: your baby! If you're feeling a bit frazzled and exhausted by your baby's erratic sleep patterns, you're not alone. According to Dr Richard Ferber, author of Solve Your Child's Sleep Problems, newborn babies typically sleep about sixteen or seventeen hours per day, but rarely for more than a few hours at a time”.757
Rates of pediatric injuries by 3-month intervals for children 0 to 3 years of age: “There were a total of 23,173 injuries; 636 resulted in death. The overall annual rate for children aged 0 to 3 years was 371/100,000. Children aged 15 to 17 months had the highest overall injury rate before age 15 years. For children 0 to 12 months of age, there was a different leading cause of specific injury for each 3-month period: other falls from height (0-2 months), battering (3-5 months), falls from furniture (6-8 months), and non airway foreign body (9-11 months). Hot liquid and vapor injuries were the leading specific causes for children 12 to 17 months. Poisoning by medication was the leading specific cause of injury for all age groups from 18 to 35 months and exceeded poisoning by other substances. Pedestrian injury was the leading specific cause of injury for all age groups from 36 to 47 months. Fall from furniture has the highest rates of specific causes of falls from age 3 to 47 months.”743 Even worse than this is: the so-called medically unexplained chronic fatigue in childhood which may cause considerable disability and is substantially familial.740 Chronic fatigue amongst schoolchildren must be differentiated from psychosomatic disorders and absenteeism119. The average energy block of children and adults suffering from chronic fatigue is 74.
“Most children develop a clear-cut sense of whether they are boys or girls at a young age. This sense of being "a boy" or "a girl" is called gender identity, a term that came into the medical literature in the 1950s. For most children this develops somewhere between 18 and 30 months of age. After gender identity is formed, then gender stability develops. Gender identity is not the same as gender, which is commonly used to mean the biologic identity. For most people, gender identity matches with biologic gender, but there is condition called gender identity disorder (GID) in which biologic gender is not the same as the gender identity of the person. This is a rare disorder but one that lead to a lot of heartache and turmoil for both the affected child and his parents.”759 Adolescents and adults with gender identity problems have an average energy block of 66.
Learning a language is a survival mechanism for the baby and in this regard the child has a phenomenal capacity to acquire language during its first six years. Thereafter it will never be easy again, to learn how to speak a language; schoolchildren will attest to this. Research indicates, that people who learn a language when they are older use another part of the brain, than when the baby does it for the first time.729
At the same time when a language is being acquired, social skills are developed. At the most basic level the child must become aware that he is an individual, who differs from all other people and things. As all parents know and realize to an ever-increasing extent over the years, a child's growing up consists of much more than learning skills, the ability to stand straight, learning words, drawing circles, becoming stronger and more clever. It consists of developing a unique person, someone who realizes that he is an individual. There is however a small hurdle, which must be traversed. Puberty and the accompanying period of adolescence are the rockiest part, which remains on the road to adulthood.729
2.5 PUBERTY: OUR BIOLOGICAL DESTINATION
We often suffer from the misconception that we are in one way or the other in control of our bodies. It is however, the least true with regard to the physical aspect, our biological composition which controls us. This is seldom as obvious as during the tempestuous years of puberty. “Although more than 82% of the 104 pregnant teens (age between 13 and 18) were aware of where to get birth control, they demonstrated no deep understanding of the menstrual cycle and its relationship to intercourse and only 11% used effective contraception. Of the birth control non-users 74% of the girls reported they did not want to get pregnant. In spite of unprotected coitus, most girls were surprised at conception.”752
Puberty is not only a time of confusion for adolescents, but also a time which continues to confuse scientists. The exact causes and the reason why it happens at that stage of life remain a mystery.729 We know that the nervous system and hormones are involved, but social and psychological factors and nutrition also play a part. The changes in these years during which maturing occurs are normally spread over four years and can quite normally start at any time between the age of eight and thirteen years in girls and nine and fourteen years in boys.729
In a normal group of children there can therefore be pubertal children, who range in age from eight to eighteen. This means that some underwent all of their pubertal changes before others of the same age have even started with it. This leads to great unhappiness amongst those, who feel that they matured prematurely, too late, or simply because they are different from their friends. Since girls start changing approximately eighteen months before boys, girls can be bigger, stronger and physically more advanced than their male classmates. This can also lead to emotional tension.729
Like most processes in the body, the commencement of puberty is brought about by the brain. The hypothalamus, a small structure with the size of a grape's pit in the center of the brain, starts to secrete large quantities of hormones. They, in turn, stimulate the pituitary gland, which is also located in the brain, to produce two hormones, which are known as LH and FSH. First they are released during the night, in regular deliveries, while the child is sleeping. As puberty progresses, more of it is secreted, until the adult pattern has been reached, which will prevail throughout life.729
LH and FSH are identical in boys and girls and in men and women. The effect of it on the targeted tissues is different however. In boys LH binds with specific groups of cells and this stimulates them, to increase their production of testosterone. It is interesting that production of testosterone also depends on the hormone prolactin, which is better known for its stimulation of milk secretion in women. This very male hormone is the key to sexual maturing. It increases the size of the genitals, develops the structures which produce sperms, stimulates the growth of hair in the face, on the chest and in the pubic region, increases muscle mass and bone density, lets the larynx or voice box expand and arouses the sexual drive.729
In girls and women the hypophysis secretes its hormones in a monthly pattern. FSH, which is the abbreviation of follicle-stimulating hormone, lets egg follicles ripen in the ovary. It stimulates the ovaries to produce estrogen, which is the key to puberty in girls, even before ovulation begins. Estrogen causes the depositing of fat on the breasts, buttocks and thighs. It has a special effect on the pelvic bones; it flattens and widens the legs.729
Estrogen receptors in the skin make the skin soft and smooth, while the male skin in contrast responds to testosterone by becoming thicker and stronger. LH controls the levels of the other female hormone, progesterone, which plays a determining role in the menstrual cycle.729
If there is not enough NAD for these processes it can cause a lot of problems for the incumbants. NAD deficiency can lead to insufficient NAD for the production of the male hormone, i.e. testosterone, and the female luteinisation hormone. It could, in the case of men, be the explanation for the feminisation syndrome (loss of beard, enlarged breasts and low sex-drive) and the masculinisation syndrome in women (menstrual problems, increased beard-growth and deeper voice)125.
This is puberty. It is not the same as adolescence, although it forms part thereof. Adolescent characteristics, like increase in size, weight, strength and intelligence, are merely proportional changes. When puberty commences, our children who are perfectly adapted up to a point, are nevertheless not capable of carrying out the instruction to be fertile and multiply.729
By the time when puberty has been completed, we shall already have traversed the last hill and we shall be looking at the peak of the mountain, for which all of the previous physical developments in us prepared us. We shall still have to learn a lot, but biologically we have already reached our destination. Bodily, mentally and socially we can occupy our position as independent members of the human race. And, if we choose so now, we can transfer the genes, which formed us, to the next generation.729
In a study about defloration “82.3% report "love" as their main motive, 12.5% report to have done it "out of curiosity" and only in 7.2% it happened "by chance". Only 36.4% were prepared psychologically for the act of defloration. In 42% the coitus occurred at parties and 43.7% in the evenings.753 Overall, 91% of the 2933 sexually active female respondents indicated that their first intercourse was voluntary. 76% of women 13 years or younger at first intercourse, compared with 90% of those 19-24 years old, characterized their first intercourse as voluntary.754 The truth is not embedded in this statistics regarding our postpubertal body which belong to us, but who easily renders its biochemical control to our opposite sex partner. “A wife is not the master of her own body, but her husband is; in the same way a husband is not the master of his own body, but his wife is.” (1 Cor 7:4). So rather don’t play house before you married and ready for parenthood.
2.6 ADULTHOOD: OUR PSYCHOLOGICAL DESTINATION?
As a species, we performed extremely well. Homo sapiens is not particularly strong, nor particularly fast, agile or well-adapted to the cold or heat. The billions of human beings on this planet however occupy a larger part of the earth's land area than any other species. Our 1.4 kg of nerve tissue, the intellectual seat of our species, is obviously by far the most difficult part of our body to comprehend. We do not know why it is so large and how it happens, that it is so clever. In one way or the other its billions of cells and its millions of connections are operating in such a way that we not only call ourselves homo sapiens, which means wise man, but indeed earn this special name.729
It is mankind's grey matter energized by NAD, in conjunction with an agile hand and the ability to talk, which in any case require a good brain, which made this form of life the most comfort-oriented, most widely distributed, most intelligent, most extroverted, most creative and potentially the most devastating earthly species, which has ever existed.729 Derivatives of niacin, mainly in the form of NAD and NADP coenzymes, are found abundantly in brain tissue. In the case of niacin deficiency, the brain's supply of NAD declines sharply and the functioning of the brain is disturbed; malfunctioning of the brain (dementia) is indeed one of the primary characteristics of pellagra. If the NAD deficiency lasts for an extended period, permanent brain damage develops144.
“No longer do I give you the name of servants; because a servant is without knowledge of what his master is doing: I give you the name of friends, because I have given you knowledge of all the things which my Father has said to me”. (Joh 15:15). Our brain is probably the host of our spirit and definitely the seat of our soul. “A team of neuroscientists from the University of California at San Diego said the most intriguing explanation is that the seizure causes an overstimulation of the nerves in a part of the brain dubbed the "God module". "There may be dedicated neural machinery in the temporal lobes concerned with religion. This may have evolved to impose order and stability on society," the team reported at a conference last week. The results indicate that whether a person believes in a religion or even in God may depend on how enhanced is this part of the brain's electrical circuitry, the scientists said. If the research is correct and a "God module" exists, then it might suggest that individuals who are atheists could have a differently configured neural circuit. A spokesman for Richard Harries, the Bishop of Oxford, said whether there is a "God module" is a question for scientists, not theologians. "It would not be surprising if God had created us with a physical facility for belief," he said.”726 Nobody have to be a slave of his/her NAD deficient body/brain or of its physical drives. By using the available knowledge you can manage your body and taking care of it, then your body becomes your wonderful host and friend.
During adulthood most people marry and start a new generation. We teach our children to wait for this time in life so that they can choose their spouse with wisdom and love. Reality shows that our body do the choosing in most cases, it is called assortative mating. The finding in this study of an increased prevalence of psychiatric disorder in the first-degree relatives of the ill spouses would support the hypothesis of assortative mating, that there is a tendency for individuals with a predisposition to psychiatric illness to marry, rather than the existence of a marital interaction which causes an increased concordance for psychiatric illness.755 “Our results indicate that assortative mating is common among parents of extremely obese children and adolescents... We interpret our results as being consistent with the hypothesis that an increased rate of assortative mating has contributed to the recent rise in obesity rates in several countries.”756
Marriage partners choose each other through assortative mating, due to simular metabolic energy levels. Someone, who is addicted to religion (energy block = 62) and with a mission in life to save her husband’s soul, will therefore for example marry an alcoholic (energy block = 66), someone who needs metabolic energy more than so-called love. All of this is not visible on the external level at the time of marriage, but this will only become apparent after several years of marriage. So much then for let your heart speak in choosing the mother of your children. EMD can be ignored, but it does not change anything to the destruction, to which it definitely leads.
Due to their ignorance of their bodies and the possible role of EMD some so-called adults have just enough energy to conceive a child and enjoy the act, but do not have enough energy to provide a safe, healthy and loving environment for the child to develop and grow up. Various excuses will be provided for not taking care of their young ones. “Throughout the world, an unknown number of children, most likely in the millions, are kept in orphanages and other non-penal institutions. Many of these children are kept in grossly substandard facilities and provided with inhumane care; many are left to die. Ironically, those responsible for nurturing and providing for the children they take into their care often physically and sexually abuse the children, and subject them to other cruel and degrading treatment. Even in institutions that are clean and provide adequate food, staff often neglect children, leaving them to lie alone in cribs or small beds with no stimulation, play, or adult attention.” Even worse than this is the many children whose EMD are ignored by their parents in the best of households.
2.7 AGING: THE LAST LEG OF THE JOURNEY
Each one of us, who lives today, is the product of successful reproduction. Our parents succeeded in reproducing us, their parents were successful in reproducing them and in this way one can trace the story of success back to the beginning.729 “Saying, Blessing I certainly will bless you and multiplying I will multiply you. And so it was that he, Abraham, having waited long and endured patiently, realized and obtained what God had promised him”. (Heb 6:14-15). "NAD normalizes you, so that you do not get angry, sleep better, have less pain [ . . . ]. Let us say it again: The Lord makes it possible for you. It is not an act of faithlessness, when you use NAD. It is a Devine calling to use it." (Prof Murray Janson, "Seerkry Mense" video).
While we are moving through the early stages of life, our bodies change and develop to deal with the challenges of each new age. What happens then? Sooner or later each one of us realizes, that we aged. The road gradually goes downhill, after we have reached the peak of physical performance. We become less competent in virtually every aspect, particularly during the last leg of our journey.729
Our physical appearance changes. We shall probably become shorter, more crooked, stiffer, grey, more bald, more wrinkled, have a drier, thinner and discoloured skin, with a double chin or a pointy chin, a different voice, bad hearing, poor eyesight, varicose veins, ineffective memory, larger earlobes and a broader, longer nose. Science has not yet presented a universally acceptable theory about ageing, but with our ever-increasing knowledge about molecular biology it is not surprising that research is concentrated on the internal functioning of cells. It can help to answer one of the most difficult questions about ageing.729 Nutritional deficiencies are prevalent in the elderly, particularly among the frail, institutionalized, or impoverished. Muscle dysfunction is linked to inadequate intake of energy and protein, providing evidence for defects in morphology, physiology, and function.
We know that most tissues in the body are constantly coming and going. New differentiated cells can be produced during adult life in either of two ways: they can form by the simple duplication of existing differentiated cells, which divide to give pairs of daughter cells of the same type; or they can be generated from relatively undifferentiated stem cells. Rates of renewal vary from one tissue to another. The lining of the intestine is replaced every three days, red blood cells are replaced every 120 days, the skin is constantly discarding dead cells while new ones are being pushed to the surface, even your skeleton will replace all of its cells every seven years. There are few things in our body, which are older than ten years.729 Even in a slowly renewing tissue, a small but persistent imbalance between the rate of cell production and the rate of cell death will lead to disaster. If 2% of the hepatocytes in a human divided each week but only 1% died, the liver would grow to exceed the weight of the rest of the body within 8 years. Homeostatic mechanisms must operate to adjust the rate of cell proliferation and/or the rate of cell death in order to keep the organ at its standard size.
Menopause in Females: At the age of 40 or 50 years or later, the menstrual cycles usually become irregular and ovulation fails to appear (anovulatory cycles). The reason for it is the disappearance of the ova from the ovaries. All were either released or degenerate. When the cycles cease, menopause takes place. The loss of estrogen then causes: thinning of the vaginal epithelium; decreased vaginal secretion; decreased breast mass; hot flushes, night sweats and vaginal dryness; often heart disease; osteoporosis, decreased bone mass; psychic sensation of dyspnea; aging skin; irritability; fatigue; anxiety; mental deterioration and some loss of memory and sometimes psychotic states.719
Why do we therefore not always look and function, as if we are very young? Why do our earthly bodies not live forever? Each cell contains the body's complete genetical code in the DNA, which is stored in its core, and these DNA controls the cell's actions and reactions. In chemical terms, DNA is a huge, extremely complex molecule. The DNA must nevertheless create a perfect copy of itself, every time when the cell splits. Problems arise, when this does not happen.729 One of the main reasons for DNA failure is NAD deficiency. NAD plays a major role in repairing DNA44, 156, 196.
Damage due to free radicals and accumulating faults in the DNA are however not the complete story of ageing. A mighty factor is simple the lack of metabolic energy to lessen the wear, due to continual affrontations, which bombard our bodies externally as well as internally. Polluting substances, toxins, natural radiation, viruses, bacteria and the ultraviolet light from the sun are attacking us all from the external environment, while our cells must fight internally against dangerous waste products and the hormonal consequences of physical and psychological tension.729
Since the body is such a complex and intimately integrated entity, degeneration in one system also makes its consequences felt elsewhere. The ear degenerates. Balance degenerates in its wake. Since vision also deteriorated, the chances of accidents are much greater. Bones break more easily when the person falls and bedriddenness have more permanent consequences on the muscular system, balance and strength of bones. What starts as subtle changes leads over the years to weakness and brittleness in adults, who once upon a time were healthy, reduced ability of most physiological systems and an ever increasing vulnerability to diseases and death?729
2.8 DEATH: OUR SPIRITUAL DESTINATION?
“All your life you will sweat to produce food, until your dying day. Then you will return to the ground from which you came. For you were made from dust, and to the dust you will return." (Gen 3:19). Death does not come suddenly, but gets the better of us while we are becoming ever more susceptible to it. After forty the rate of death doubles with every eight years with which the age advances, until all of us are ultimately caught by it. All of us know that that is our fate, but why is it like that?. Even if one becomes one-hundred years of age, you merely lived 5 214 weeks. Throughout the world hundreds of people die each second. Death is not a rare event, but it is the only event where metabolic energy plays virtually no role. We nevertheless live from day to day and devote too little attention to the departure from earthly life, which awaits all of us.729 This departure takes place, when the spirit leaves the body and soul, until they are re-united again in the hereafter. Put briefly, one can say that the body's billions of cells are held together by the spirit and the body returns to dust, after the spirit has departed from it.
We consider death to be an accident, which affects people here and there, but not as an omnipotent conqueror. Physical death is a godly decree (Gen. 3:19, Rom. 8:10, 1 Cor. 15:54) and not a therapeutic mistake or due to a lack of faith. By leading a healthy life, we enhance our quality of life. It however does not ensure longevity as is abundantly claimed by the owners of various nutritional supplements. Every human's lifespan is determined by our Creator and our relationship with Him (Ecc. 8:15). Until recently, most people died at home. The family, often including the children, gathered around the deathbed, watched the death and discussed issues. In today's developed world, most people die in hospitals and in other institutions.729
Nowadays we do not see much of this finality and unfortunately many lost the religious anchors, on which previous generations could depend on so well. More than ever before death is still the great unknown entity to many people. If death comes suddenly, a completely healthy body can within moments become transformed to a state in which it cannot continue to live. Most deaths however come slowly, with a gradual collapse of the bodily systems.729
The last gasps of breath when death finally arrives are often accompanied by a rasping sound, which is referred to as the death rattle. It is caused by spasms in the muscles of the vocal cords. Immediately before death there is often a brief period, which is referred to as the agonal phase (derived from the Greek word agon, which means struggle). The muscles might, because of acid in the blood, start to jerk spasmodically and sometimes there is a brief jerking or swelling in the chest or shoulders.729
The battle against death is scary to people who witness it, but the dying person is usually too ill to be aware of it. As soon as death occurs, the eyeballs expand when the muscles which control the iris give up control for the last time. Sometimes the eye sheds a last tear, which is referred to as the lacrima mortis.729
Decomposition can be observed after approximately 48 hours in a moderate climate, or sooner if it is warm. It manifests itself initially as a green discoloration on the abdomen, which darkens to purple and then black. The early stages of decomposition are caused by digestive enzymes in the intestine. The body literally starts to digest itself from inside. Intestinal bacteria rapidly take control and the physical body is destroyed.729
Our bodies are built from atoms, which have already existed since the beginning of the universe. It is a fundamental law of physics that matter cannot be made or destroyed. The same atoms, which formed our planet, are absorbed in food, air and water to form our bodies for a short period and when we die, they are returned so that they are absorbed elsewhere. They are taken up in the food chain as nutrients for plants and small animals, which live in soil. Genesis states in its judgement of mankind after the fall of mankind that you are dust and that you will turn into dust again.729
Fortunately for all of us this is not the end of our bodies’ story. The physical existence of Jesus continues even after He died and when He was resurrected: “See; my hands and my feet: it is I myself; put your hands on me and make certain; for a spirit has not flesh and bones as you see that I have” (Luke 24:39). Our bodies will also be resurrected after death and then it will be immortal, strong and beautiful and will be likeness to that of Jesus (1Cor 15:42-44, 49; Phil 3:21). Not everyone believe this truth, but this was already foreseen over a thousand years ago: “By this you may have knowledge of the Spirit of God: every spirit which says that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is of God: And every spirit which does not say this is not from God: this is the spirit of the Antichrist, of which you have had word; and it is in the world even now” (1John 4:2-3).